Relative Clauses / Adjective Clause: Mike, the luckiest guy I know. (English / ESL Video)

Relative Clauses / Adjective Clause: Mike, the luckiest guy I know. (English / ESL Video)


Synopsis of English / ESL Video

Follow the comical story of Mike, the luckiest guy in the world and teach relative clauses / adjective clause to upper-intermediate level learners.


Title of English / ESL Video

Mike – The Luckiest Guy I Know

Target English Grammar

Relative clauses (also known as adjective clause or adjectival clause):
– Defining clauses (also known as restrictive clauses or identifying clauses).
– Non-defining clauses (also known as non-restrictive clauses or non-identifying clauses).
– Relative pronouns.
– Relative adverbs.
– Reduced clauses.

Student Proficiency Level

Upper-intermediate level grammar

Suggested Courses

General English

Instructions

– Play the video in class after delivering a warm-up activity first.
– Pause the video whenever the narrator asks students a question to give students time to answer. For example, after elicitations and concept checking questions (CCQs).

Summary of English: Relative Clauses / Adjective Clause

Approximate chronological order:

Storyline:

– Starts at 0:00. Ends at 4:04

Grammar Rules and Explanation:

Function:

– To identify people and things or to give more information about them.
– They act as adjectives and are hence also called adjective clause or adjectival clause.
– They are subordinate or dependent clauses and cannot be stand alone sentences.
– They begin with a relative pronoun: who, whom, whose, which or that.
– Or a relative adverb: when, where, why.

Forms:

– Relative pronoun / relative adverb + subject + verb
– Relative pronoun / relative adverb (as subject) + verb

Relative Pronouns:

– which = things: He works at the top modelling agency in town, which he loves.
– who = people: Mike’s mother is a loving woman, who makes him breakfast in bed every morning.
Who is a subject pronoun and refers to the subject of the clause (i.e. the doer of the action).
– whom = people: Jessica gave birth to a beautiful baby boy, whom grew up to be a handsome young lad.
Whom is an object pronoun and refers to the object of the clause (i.e. the receiver of the action.)
Whom is not used very often today as it sounds unusually formal. Instead, we just use who to refer to both subjects and objects of clauses.
– Example: Jessica gave birth to a beautiful baby boy, who grew up to be a handsome young lad. (This sentence is perfectly acceptable.)
– whose = people: Barbara, whose personality was fun and outgoing, was the perfect match.
Whose is the possessive relative pronoun of who and which.
Whose and who’s are completely different words.
Who’s = who is
– that = who/whom/which: In informal language we can use that to replace who, whom and which.
– Example 1 (whom): Mike went out and asked out the first girl that he saw.
– Example 1 (whom): Mike went out and asked out the first girl whom he saw.
– Example 2 (which): He had spent all the money that he found.
– Example 2 (which): He had spent all the money which he found.

Relative Adverbs:

– where = places: We used to play together at the playground where we made friends with the older kids.
– when = time: He was my best friend when we were at school.
– why = reason: This is why I love Hawaii.

Subject and Object of the Clause:

– Adjectival clauses can be used as either the subject or the object of the clause.
– Example 1 (subject of the clause): Barbara, who was the lucky girl, immediately said “yes”.
– Example 2 (object of the clause): Jessica gave birth to a beautiful baby boy, whom grew up to be a handsome young lad.

Defining Clause:

Function:

– To identify or classify nouns.
– To tell us which person or thing, or which kind of person or thing, is referred to.
– To give us essential information about the person or thing.

Details:

– Also known as identifying or restrictive clause.
– Example: Mike is the luckiest guy whom I know.
– There is no comma before the relative pronoun / relative adverb in defining clauses.
– We can use that to replace who, whom or which in defining clauses.
– Example: Mike is the luckiest guy that I know.

Reduced Clause:

– We can leave out the relative pronoun if they are the object of a defining clause.
– Example: Mike is the luckiest guy I know.
– We cannot leave out the relative pronoun if they are the subject of a defining clause.
– Example: Barbara, who was the lucky girl, immediately said “yes”. (We cannot leave out the who.)

Non-Defining Clause:

Function:

– To give which is non-essential information about a person or thing which is already identified.
– They do not identify or classify nouns.

Details:

– Also known as non-identifying or non-restrictive clause.
– Example: When Mike was jogging in the park, which he does every morning, he came up with a great idea.
– There is a comma before the relative pronoun / relative adverb in non-defining clauses.
– We cannot use that to replace who, whom or which in non-defining clauses.
– We cannot leave out the relative pronoun to make reduced clauses in non-defining clauses.


*** English / ESL Video: No Music Version ***

(1983)

2 Comments

  • Dudezzz
    Reply

    Good vid.. but I have to question the part where you explained “WHY” as a relative pronoun used to introduce relative clauses. In your example, “THIS IS WHY I LOVE HAWAII.” – why i love Hawaii- in this example is a noun clause. We can only use a relative clause if there is a noun / pronoun being modified. If your example were “This is the reason why I love Hawaii,” then the why clause there would be a relative clause. Very confusing to a lot especially when we start our sentence with THIS IS.. For instance, This is what I love.. This is where I saw her.. This is how i like it. The clauses after THIS IS are noun clauses due to the absence of noun/pronoun being modified. Please do correct me if I am wrong.

    • oomongzu
      Reply

      That’s a great question. In this case, “this” is actually the subject, so “why I love Hawaii” is defining “this”.

      Hope this helps with your studies!

      Cheers!

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